ISO 27001 Standard

Find out everything about the international reference standard for information systems security, ISO 27001, with an interview with a GRC consultant.


What is the ISO 27001 Standard?

The ISO/IEC 27001 standard, published in 2005 and revised in 2013 and 2022, is an international reference standard for information systems security (ISS).

Its importance has increased in the face of increasing cyber threats and the need for organizations to protect sensitive information, whether stored on computers, servers, mobile devices or in the cloud.

ISO 27001:2022
ISO 27001:2022

Objectives of the ISO 27001 standard

Protect the confidentiality, integrity and availability of information

The main objective of ISO 27001 is to protect the organization’s sensitive information from unauthorized access, accidental or intentional destruction, unauthorized modification and unauthorized disclosure.

This includes confidential information, such as customer data, trade secrets, financial information and personal data.


  • Implementing strict access controls: The organization can implement physical and logical access controls to limit access to sensitive information to those who need it.
  • Protection against malware and ransomware: Implementation of security solutions to protect its systems against malware and ransomware which can encrypt data or make it inaccessible.
  • Establishment of backup and restoration procedures: The organization can develop backup and restoration procedures to ensure the availability of information in the event of a disaster.

Demonstrate compliance with legal and regulatory requirements

ISO 27001 can help organizations comply with data protection laws and regulations, such as GDPR, HIPAA, and Sarbanes-Oxley.


  • Implementation of a GDPR-compliant privacy and cookies policy: Creation of a privacy and cookies policy that informs users of how their personal data is collected, used and processed.
  • Developing security measures to protect personal data: The organization may implement technical and organizational security measures to protect personal data against unauthorized access, loss, destruction and unlawful processing.

Improve customer and partner trust

ISO 27001 certification can reassure customers and partners that the organization takes information security seriously. This can give the organization a competitive advantage and enable it to gain new customers and partners.


  • Display of the ISO 27001 certification logo on the organization’s website: Displaying the ISO 27001 certification logo on its website and in its marketing materials helps demonstrate its commitment to information security.
  • Mention of ISO 27001 certification in responses to calls for tenders: Mentioning ISO 27001 certification in responses to calls for tenders demonstrates its ability to protect sensitive customer information.

Reduce the risks of cyberattacks and fraud

Implementing an information security management system (ISMS) based on the ISO 27001 standard can help prevent security incidents and minimize impacts in the event of an incident.


  • Create a password security policy: The organization can implement a password security policy to ensure that passwords are strong and difficult to guess. The said policy in question makes it possible to define different levels of password to be used depending on the level of criticality of the data and the authorizations of the personnel. For example, an administrator who has access to sensitive IT resources must necessarily have a stronger password than an employee who only performs office automation.
  • Train and Awareness Security Awareness of Employees: It is necessary to create security awareness training for employees to teach them how to identify and avoid cyber attacks and fraud.

The Fundamental Principles of the ISO 27001 standard

ISO 27001 doesn’t just dictate specific security measures. Rather, it offers a flexible and adaptable framework allowing organizations to build a robust and personalized information security management system (ISMS).

This framework is based on 4 pillars:

The 4 pillars of ISO 27001:2022
The 4 pillars of ISO 27001:2022

Holistic Approach

The ISMS takes into account all aspects of information security, from risk management and controls to staff awareness and incident management. It is a comprehensive approach that integrates security into all processes and activities of the organization.

Continuous improvement

The WSIS is not a static project. It is a dynamic process that must be constantly reviewed and improved to adapt to new threats and organizational changes. This involves continuous monitoring, testing and regular updates.

Risk-based approach

The organization identifies its critical information assets (customer data, intellectual property, etc.), assesses the risks that threaten them (hacking, malware, human errors, etc.) and implements proportionate controls to mitigate them.

The risks to be taken into account are not only informational but also material, software, human, environmental, etc., this concerns the entire IS.

This approach makes it possible to concentrate efforts on the most sensitive points and optimize the allocation of resources.

Steering by management

Management is committed to and takes responsibility for the ISMS, allocating the necessary resources and encouraging the participation of all staff.

The involvement of management is essential to guarantee the success of the approach and the sustainability of the ISMS.

Structure of the ISO 27001:2022 standard

The ISO 27001 version 2022 standard is divided into two main parts:

Part 1: Requirements

  • Scope: Define the scope of the standard and the organizations that can use it.
  • Normative references: Lists the other standards and normative documents which are used in the ISO 27001 standard.
  • Terms and definitions: Defines key terms used in the ISO 27001 standard.
  • Organizational Context: Includes requirements for the organization to understand its context and the needs and expectations of its stakeholders.
  • Leadership: Groups together requirements for management to commit to the establishment and maintenance of an ISMS.
  • Planning: Contains requirements for the organization to plan its ISMS, including defining objectives and risks.
  • Support: Includes requirements for the organization to put in place the resources necessary to operate its ISMS.
  • Accomplishments: Includes requirements for the organization to implement and manage information security controls.
  • Measurement, analysis and improvement: Contains requirements for the organization to monitor and measure its ISMS, and take measures to improve it.

Part 2: Security Measures

  • Introduction: This section represented by normative annex A of ISO 27001 presents information security measures.
  • Measures: The ISO 27001 standard offers a list of 93 security measures grouped into 4 categories. Each measure is described in detail, with information on its purpose, requirements and implementation guidance.

Here are the 4 categories of measurements:

the 4 categories of measurements of ISO 27001
The 4 categories of measurements of ISO 27001

1.   Organizational security measures

Organizational security measures consist of establishing information security policies and procedures and assigning responsibility and authority by management to ensure their implementation and compliance.

2. Safety measures applicable to people

Personal security measures include raising awareness and training staff in information security practices, as well as setting clear access rules and responsibilities to ensure secure use of systems and data.

3. Physical security measures

ISO 27001 physical security measures include protecting premises, equipment and resources against physical threats, such as unauthorized access, theft or intentional damage.

4. Technological security measures

Technology security measures involve implementing technical controls and solutions, such as firewalls, intrusion detection software and cryptography, to protect computer systems and data from threats and vulnerabilities.

It is important to note that ISO 27001 does not mandate the implementation of all security measures. The organization must select measures that are relevant to its context and needs, but must nevertheless provide justification for the exclusion of security measures from Annex A.

Concrete implementation of ISO 27001

1. Preparation phase

  • Management Commitment: Management must be committed to implementing and maintaining the ISO 27001 standard.
  • Definition of roles and responsibilities: Although the ISO 27001 standard does not explicitly require the presence of a CISO, it emphasizes the need to have management committed to information security and to assign clear responsibilities for security management. In many organizations, designating a CISO is a recommended practice to fulfill these requirements.
  • Risk Assessment: A risk assessment should be carried out to identify the threats and vulnerabilities of the organization.
  • Definition of objectives: The objectives of implementing the ISO 27001 standard must be defined.
  • Project planning: A project plan must be developed, with precise deadlines and budgets.

2. Implementation phase

  • Training: Employees must be made aware and trained in information security as well as the requirements of the ISO 27001 standard.
  • Implementation of measures: The selected security measures must be put in place.
  • Documentation: The information security management system (ISMS) must be based on documents formalized by the organization, such as security policies, processes and procedures.
  • Internal audit: An internal audit must be carried out to verify compliance with the ISMS.

3. Certification phase

  • Choice of a certification body: An accredited certification body must be chosen.
  • Certification audit: A certification audit will be carried out by the certification body.
  • Certification decision: The certification body will decide whether the organization is ISO 27001 compliant.

4. Maintenance phase

  • Management review: Management should review the ISMS regularly.
  • Continuous improvement: The ISMS must be continuously improved.
  • Internal audits: Internal audits must be carried out regularly.
  • Monitoring Measures: Security measures should be monitored and updated as necessary.

Interview on the benefit of relying on the ISO 27001 standard for organizational security

Discover our exclusive interview with Éric Abauzit, the RGC (Analytical Risk Governance and Compliance) consultant at Ziwit.

Interviewer: « Hello everyone, today we have the pleasure of welcoming Éric Abauzit, GRC consultant at Ziwit. We will discuss the importance of ISO 27001 and good security practices within organizations. »

Interviewer: « First of all, for our listeners who might not be familiar with ISO 27001, could you give us a brief overview of what it entails? »

Éric Abauzit: « Of course. ISO 27001 is an international standard that defines the requirements for an effective ISMS. It provides a framework for identifying, managing and reducing information security risks within an organization. By adopting ISO 27001, businesses can put processes and controls in place to protect their sensitive information, ensure confidentiality, integrity and availability of data. »

Interviewer: « What do you think are the main benefits for an organization that adopts the ISO 27001 standard and integrates its security best practices? »

Éric Abauzit: « The advantages are numerous. First, ISO 27001 helps organizations identify and assess information security risks, allowing them to take proactive steps to mitigate them. Second, it promotes a culture of security within the company, raising employee awareness of the importance of protecting data. Additionally, by implementing the controls and processes recommended by the standard, organizations build resilience to cyber threats and security incidents. »

Interviewer: « Let’s move on to ISO 27001 certification. What does it consist of and what is its benefit for an organization? »

Éric Abauzit: « ISO 27001 certification is an official recognition issued by a third-party accreditation body, confirming that the organization has implemented an information security management system that complies with the requirements of the ISO 27001 standard. Certification attests to the organization’s commitment to information security and strengthens its credibility with customers, partners and stakeholders. It can also open new business opportunities by demonstrating compliance with international information security standards. »

Interviewer: « Thank you very much Mr Abauzit for this valuable information on ISO 27001 and its benefits for organizational security. »



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